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Posted on December 19th, 2020

Gen. Joe Kingstone, whom de Chair said some considered “the best fighting Brigadier in the British Army,” the British force assembling for this Arabian Nights’ adventure was called King Column, or “Kingcol” for short, taking part of its name from part of its leader’s name. Libyaan Italian colony. Stokes, Raymond G. �The oil industry in Nazi Germany, 1936-1945,� Business History Review Vol. The German man losses for the first week had been fairly limited. Now was his opportunity to seize it. [Return to Main World War II page] In the north it borders on the Ringkobing-Fyn-High of Tanks and other vehicleswe primarily trabnsported by rail. NAZI goals in the East are clearly spelled out by Genealplan Ost. Tomberg, W. "Wehrwirtschaftliche Erkenntnisse von 5 Kriegsjahren," (November 1944). On June 22, nine-tenths of the production of airplane fuel was knocked out." These deliveries temprarily alieviated one of the most serious problems faced by the Wehermacht. Other minerals found in … Second, the Germans had some small domestic oil fields. Finally the 8th Ar Force went for the German jugular--th synthetic fuel plants deep in the Reich. Of this total, domestic crude oil production accounted for only 3.8 million barrels while 60 percent (roughly 28 million barrels) of German oil was imported from overseas where the United States controlled the lion’s share of production. The destruction of the Luftwaffe opened up Germany to an unrelenting bombing campaign by the massive American and British strategic bombing forces built up in Britain as well as additional fiorces flying from liberated Italy. Stranges, Anthony N. "Friedrich Bergius and the rise of the German synthetic fuel industry," Isis Vol. The P�litz plant, Hydrierwerke P�litz AG. Thisworked, but it did not provide the energy needed firhigh performance. And to do so with a fleet tht had been sharply reduced from the Grand Fleet of World War I. This included the agricultural sector. [Children] This essentially forced Romania into the NAZI camp. Eating & Drinking. The advance to meet the Russians would be resisted by small units in towns an villages, but there would be no coordinated effort to stop the Allied advance. The German Bulge had separated The British in the North and the Americans in the south by about 40 km. Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre have described Glubb Pasha in 0, Jerusalem, their account of the birth of Israel, in 1948. “Yet of all the long line of British Arabists that had followed the master [Lawrence] east, he was indisputably the greatest. Report on the condition of the war economy (November 7, 1942). The Germans did what they could to maximize output from their domestic oil fields. This included Romania which had fought with the Allies in World War I. Romania was critical because of the vital Ploesti oil fields. This of course eded hen the NAZIs invaded the Soviet Union. Long range fighter esorts finally enabled the 8th Air Force to challenge and defeat the Luftwaffe (1944). Progress was initially good as was the case with most German offensives in the war's early going. Hitler with aeries of impressive victories was convinced he could destroy the Soviet Union in a short summer campaign. He did not, however, expct the Allies to declare war over Poland. Italian state oil Company ENI Chief and Italian businessmen Enrico Mattei coined the phrase after the War. Recommended: Imagine a U.S. Air Force That Never Built the B-52 Bomber. Coal was a rare natural resource that the Reich had in abundance, Some 90 percent of Germany�s energy consumption was produced by coal. eneral Eisenhower in part because of the V-2 attacks, gave priority to Geneal Montgomery to cross the Rgine in the Netherlandswith Opeation Mrket Grden. [Home front] He expeced them to back down as they had over Czechoslovakia. There is no doubt that oil was an important inducement as was the grain of the Ukraine and other needed resources. Also in April, the German Twelfth Army would overrun Greece in a lightning three-week campaign, forcing a wholesale evacuation of British forces to the island of Crete only to be ejected once again by a German airborne invasion. His Majesty’s Life Guards and Royal Horse Guards jostled along in their army trucks beside the Bedouin of the Arab Legion—Glubb’s Desert Patrol, swathed in garish robes, who raced about in light trucks armed with Lewis guns,” like the commandos of David Stirling’s Long Range Desert Group fighting against Rummel farther west. 37 The reversal of Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union at Stalingrad marked the greatest extent of German imperialism and the turning point of Nazi Germany's quest to exploit foreign oil. The 8th Air Force had sustanined substantial losses on trgets in western Germany during 1943. Of all the array led by the capable Kingstone, none was more exotic than the Arab Legion, nor more legendary than Sir John Bagot Glubb, Glubb Pasha [pasha is an old Turkish title loosely meaning “commander” or “leader”]. This was, however, a one-time bonaza, as these countries imported oil and because of the Royal Navy blockase, further maritime imports were cut off. In the North, Montgomery staged a major set-piece offensive with a huge D-Day-like airborn drop (Operation Plunder). Already the German Army had formed two special units trained and ready to assist the Iraqis, the 287th and 288th Brandenburg companies [the 288th was commanded by Colonel Menton, an old friend of Rommel’s from the Great War]. Soviet forces in the Caucauses managed to stop the German drive in the moutanous terraine short of Grozny. [Karlsch and Stokes, pp. In the spring of 1941, events in the Middle East suddenly exploded in a crisis for Great Britain. It was not a major field, but helped. As the Americans slowly reduced the Bulge, the Germans executed a fighting withdrawal. Germany imported 85.2 million tonnes of crude oil (the country also imports additional mineral oil products). (November 10). If the Schliffen Plan had suceeded, the blockade would have been of no importance. The Soviets seized the provinces of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina (1940). 79.] Romania declared its neutrality at the outbreak of World War II. The Bergius process plants were Germany's primary source of high-grade aviation gasoline and synthetic oil as well as synthetic rubber, synthetic methanol, synthetic ammonia, and nitric acid. When the Red army arrived, the plesti fields and refineries were left a total wreck. They would form the �Consortium for Iran� cartel, a role that OPEC would later play. One prong headed south for the oil. All of the fuel had to be shipped from Italy to Libya, primarily Tripoli by sea convoy. It is very clear in Mein Kampf, however, that Lebensraum and race were the primary factors. The Rhine crossing, aided by taking the Remagen Bridge, proved anti-climatic. Hitler was aware that when war broke out that the Allies would again blockade Germany. A-Frames & Y-Straps. Actual industrial productiion was adifferent matter. It was considered prt of Romania's contribution to the war effort. Recommended: Imagine a U.S. Air Force That Never Built the B-52 Bomber. To ensure Feisal’s rule (and protect Britain’s interest), the British patrolled the vast Iraqi desert and its Bedouin tribes by Royal Air Force (RAF) planes from above and Rolls-Royce armored cars on the desert floor. Ironically a rail transport of Soviettankers was crossing the border at the very moment that the Wehrmacht launched Barbarossa. The fallm of France also mean that the Royal Navy no longervhad te support of the French fleet and woufd have to go it alone. Iraq’s pro-British government was toppled in a coup in March by the very pro-German Rashid Ali al-Gailani. A more colorful army had not been gathered together in the Middle East since Lawrence of Arabia, mounted on his fleet racing camels, had marshaled the wild Bedouin to do battle with the Turks. German offensive power in Barbarossa was developed from a build up in 1938, and German's left over munitions stocks following the fall of France ( 1940 saw Germany produce a massive amount of munitions in preparation for another attritional western front), and stocks captured in France ( like the oil captured from the Alsace refineries). Of course after launching a war, Germany woul require much greater fuel resources to support the mobile war operations contemplated by the rapidly expading Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe. The Germans began overruning Soviet oil fields in the northern Caucauses (summer 1942). The Germans managed to increase production from 3.8 million barrels in 1938 to nearly 12.0 million barrels in 1944. [51] The city’s fields themselves were Europe’s largest individual source of petroleum outside the Soviet Union. 59 (summer 1985), pp. It is a certainty that the German offensive in Summer '42 could have been expanded to include other objectives that lack of … With Gibraltar in their hands, the Mediteranean would be essetially an Axis lake. From the rail heads one source reports that it was not unusual for German tanks to drive or be towed to the battlefield using flammable gas made from wood. NAZI diplomats worked to develop trade relations with the Balkan countries and to bring the countries in the rgion into the Axis. As a result, oil demand was modest compared to many other countries. To ensure the German Army's survival, the oil-rich fields of the Soviet Caucasus region were targeted for capture and thus Hitler devised 'Operation Blue' for the action. The destruction of the Luftwaffe opened up Germany to an unrelenting bombing campaign by the massive American and British strategic bombing forces built up in Britain as well as additional forces flying from liberated Italy. The British did not, hoever, cooperate. The Germans suceeded in capturing smallest of the Russian oil fields at Maikop (August 1942), but the Soviets disabled it o it was of no immdiate use. This initially was the principal objective of Case Blue. Third, Germany had access to Italian ports. First, oil and octane were key to the fight. German planners for the operation concluded that even under the most optimistic projections there was only enough fuel for 60 days of full … The Germans were to deliver the indutrial goods on aongr time frame, but fell behind on even this schedule. The German invasion of the USSR included the goal to capture the Baku oilfields. This would have solved the fuel problem because Germany could then import fuel by sea again. And while the bombers were shifted primarilt to France to support the Normandy landings, attaks on the Reich continued and one of the principal targetswas tghe synthetic fuel plants as they were located. And pciou American carriers badly neeed in the Pacific were deverted to make sure that aircraft and supplies (especially oil) got through to Malta. With the German invasion of Belgium, the British declred war and with French cooperation instituted a naval blockade of Germany. The process involved reacting the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane obtained from coal. General Patton's Third Army after swwping through France (July-August 1944) began to experience fuel shortages. The 8th Air Force had sustanined substantial losses on targets in western Germany during 1943. In addir\tion tgeGermanswere not paying for the oil and promissied deliveries of coal and other items were not arriving. [Stranges] The other great powers had sources of oil. At the time the SS was preparing planson how to deal with the British if an invasion was necessary--NAZI occuption plans. A large portion of the Italian supply convoys were destroyed through British air and submarine attacks, Here Malta played a key role. They faced a largely imobilized German Army. Model had been one of the Wehrmacht's great mastersof mobility ob the Eastern Front. The British, however, were not vey sensible, understading just what surrendering to Hitler meant. [Return to Main World War II strategic materials oil page] Possssion of the city on the Volga would prevent the Soviets from sending reinforcements into the Caucasuses to protect the oil fields. "I implored Hitler ... to reserve a significantly larger part of the fighter plane production ... to protecting the home hydrogenation plants ...." (July 28). The problem after the War was that the resulting synthetic oil was more expensive than imported oil. of course this bonanza ended when Hitler launched the Barbarossa invasion of the ehe Soviet Union (June 1941). 193ff. And the raw material for synfuel was coal. The Arab Legion was formed to control the Bedouin tribes in his new domain, and to defend it from outsiders. Further American raids hammered Ploesti (late spring and summer of 1944). Dienstglas. Stalin and the Allies knew that once Hitler had access to those fields, there would be no stopping him, which was why the battle turned out to be so gory. The increase in production meant thatthe fieldsere being rapidly deplted. The division of forces, however, led to the disaster at Stalingrad. With Rommel driving on Egypt and the British pushed out of Greece, a sudden pro-Nazi coup d’état in Iraq lay rich oil fields and more at Germany’s feet. A subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp was located in P�litz itself. Autarkiepolitik im Dritten Reich: Der nationalsozialistische Vierjahresplan (Stuttgart, 1968), pp. Tanks are gas guzzlers, especially the heavy German tanks. Ever since World War I overthrew the power of the Ottoman Turks, having a friendly government sitting in Baghdad had been a cornerstone of British policy. The Ardennes was hardly the perfect location for an armored offensive--especialy for the large German Panthers and Tigers. Finally the 8th Ar Force went for the German synthetic fuel plants. These companies came to be called the Seven Sisters oil companies. The Germans were able to extract about 4.7 million barrels from other Soviet sources. If they persist at it this time, we will soon no longer have any fuel production worth mentioning'." Britain declared wr (Septemnber3, 1939) abnd France followed suit. A large portion of the Italian supply convoys were destroyed through British air and submarine attacks, Here Malta played a key role. Ptton reportedly experimrnted with captured German fuel ny having a few Sherman tanks and armored personnel carries converted. More has been written about the German U-boats than the Allied naval blockade, but the U-boats failed and the Allied blockade suceeded. At the time of World War II, the Iranian fields were just being developed, but fields in Iraq controlled by the British would ply an importnt role in the War. (June 24). First, they imported both crude and finished petroleum products from abroad. It was too late to have much impact on the German war effort and oil was not as important at the time as it was to become in World War II. Here, the Kriegsmarine's 13th U-boat flotilla had its headquarters. WW2 German Field Equipment. German troops were allowed to move into Romania, tking over tghe rail system (October 1940). Military preparadnes became increasingly important and overrode commercial concerns. The country had abundant coal resources, especially in the Ruhr. A month and after the Normandy landings he writes, "... the allies staged a new series of attacks which put many fuel plants out of action. Germany had very limited oil resources. Please find below our selection of WW2 German Field Equipment. Unlike the Jews, not all the Slavs were to be killed. Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa (June 1941). WW2 Binoculars. This included Romania which had fought with the Allies in World War I. Romania was critical because of the vital Ploesti oil fields. Goldschmidt AG (now Evonik Industries) (1914). K98 Stock. [Stokes] Fields in the Reuch produced about 3 8 million barrels. Gallien, Thomas and Reno Stutz, Geschichtswerkstatt Rostock, Landesheimatverband Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Landeskundlich-historisches Lexikon Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Hinstorff, 2007). And because Britain did not seek peace hen many thought that she was defeated in 1940, that embargo would continue throughout the War. An with the invasion of Italy (September 1943), Allied air attacks intensified. Even when the Allies did dclare war, oil was still not an immedite problem. Gen. Jacob E. Smart, a four-star general who conceived the strategy for the daring World War II bombing raid on the oil refineries at Ploiesti, Romania, and went on to help shape the postwar Air Force, died Sunday in Ridgeland, S.C., in the house in which he was born.He was 97.The cause was congestive heart failure, his son, William, said. After another month of bombing he writes that he sent a memorandum to Hitler. There were of course many other enducements, including Ukrainian grain and Donets coal, but oil was the most pressing problem. It was one of the most heavily defended targets in Europe, but the refineries were finally destroyed after a prolonged and costly effort. [Karlsch and Stokes, pp. I would think that Steel would be a pretty big one too - wooden planes just don't last as long, and pretty much everything ever made during WW2 had steel in it. Te British force in 1940 was very small and poorly armed. The Soviets as part of the NAZI-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (August 1939) delivered oil to the NAZIs. As it worked out, the Sovies immediately began delivering large quntities of critically needed raw materials to the Germans. The companies included: Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (this was a British company, now BP), Gulf Oil (split between BP and Chevron), Royal Dutch Shell (a Dutch-British compny), Standard Oil Company of California (SoCal, now Chevron), Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Esso, later Exxon, now part of ExxonMobil), Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony, later Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil), and Texaco (now part of Chevron). And they wre easily surronded and cut off. The Soviets as part of the NaZI-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (August 1939) delivered oil to the NAZIs. And the Rhine was the last natural barrier to the Allied advance. Oil was a problem for Germany from the first day of the War. History of the Raid on the German Oil Supply in Ploesti The oil fields and eight massive refineries that surrounded Ploesti, Romania, spread over about eighteen square miles. 196.]. The Iraq putsch was as devastating a blow to England in the Middle East, especially coupled with the Desert Fox’s spectacular victories in North Africa, because Iraq shared an importance, second only to that of Egypt, for the survival of British power in the entire region. Go to previous slide - Best Selling. The Germans were developing an empire of their own, but none included oil finds and with the Royal Navy control of the Sea, there was no way of getting oil back to Germany even if there were oil discoveries. Hitler launched World war II without the resources needed to wage global war. Today the Fischer-Tropsch process can be used to poduce synthetic fuels. Russia had vast resources and began to develop fieklds in the Caucauses. First Germany invaded adcseized Norway, complicating the North Sea blockade because of Luftwaffe air bases there (1940). For the last German offensive of the War, the planners based the success of the offensive on capturing Ameican fuel dumps. OKW analists calculated that with monthly military requirements of 7.25 million barrels and imports and home production of only 5.35 million barrels, German oil stocks would be exhausted by August 1941. [Gallien, and Stutz, p. 503] Speer describes he process. June 1941 Ploieşti When Hitler launched the Panzers across tge Polish frontier (September 1939), Germany had stockpiled 15 million barrels of fuel. 254-77. 74-75.] Air raids on Ploesti destroyed 50 percent of the Romanian refinery capacity (August 1943). Romanian deliveries still totaled 7 million barrels in the first 6 months of 1944. At the time, total German oil imports from the USSR were 912,000 tons, [clarification needed] with German stockpiles [citation needed] at 1,350,000 tons. The Germans had three sources of oil. Still facing an Afrika Korps bent on the conquest of the Land of the Pharaohs, the British daringly assembled a strike force for the advance on Baghdad. The tanks only moved slowly. And very few Germans owned private automobiles. His focus was firmly set on the East and he wanted no distractions or diversion of force. Russia's Next Big Military Sale - To Mexico? The Bergius process was later enhanced by Matthias Pier. But Rashid Ali al-Gailani’s March 1941 coup, led by the secret “Golden Square” society, had toppled this careful settlement. The Allies once they had the bombers and bases in Libya made a major effort to destroy the Ploesti airfields. Oil/Fuel certainly keeps units mobile, though a large portion of the German War Machine was horse-powered (the four legged kind). [Return to Main strategic bombing campaign page] In 1943 and 1944, British and American planes targeted the Ploesti oil fields in Romania, a German ally. The Austrian Anscluss added more fields (1938). [Return to Main war essay page], Strategic Bombing Campaign: The Oil Campaign, Main World War II strategic materials oil page, Main World War II strategic materials page. Seven major oil compnies dominated the production and export of oil at the time Hitler and Stalin launched World War II. The Allied oil campaign of World War II: 11 pitted the RAF and the USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products. The Germans were, however, no longer paying for the oil in any meaningful way. Rashid Ali made “threats to the Ambassador about cutting the throats of the British if any bombs were dropped on Baghdad,” recalled British officer Somerset de Chair, who would play an important role in the drama to come. The Soviets forced Germans to dismantel the plant for shipment to the Soviet Union where it coukld be reassembled. The only major oil exporter not part of the Seven Sisters was the Soviet oil indutry. The first step was hitting Ploesti and edin Germany's major accss t natural petroleum. Coal as in Britain fueld the industrial revolution. One of his generals had a plan to do just that. The operation was a continuation of the previous year's Operation Barbarossa, intended to knock the Soviet Union out of the war. Hitler recognized the importance of oil and ordered and the danger of relying on imported sources. Report On Investigations by Fuels and Lubricants Teams At The I.G. The French, however, stopped the Germans at the Marne. [Bibliographies] Whoever controlled Iraq sat astride the crucial overland route between Egypt and India, the most precious jewel in England’s Imperial Crown. USSBS, p. Bergius won a Nobel Prize for his work. This 25 percent shortfall could only be supplied with Soviet oil deliveries. Too often World War II scholars try to think logically about Hitler and to forget how his mind was warped by race. 73-74.]. - resources and power: Germany, which has relatively few domestic natural resources, most... Four legged kind ), this was data compiled by Dr. Hettlage an. ( December 1944-January 1945 ) the Grand fleet of World War I. Romania was Hitler’s major source of in! Evonik Industries ) ( 1914 ) this bonanza ended when Hitler launched World War II virtually immobile of. Abadan could process 14 million tonnes of crude oil ( the country had abundant coal resources, most! Out of the fuel of the most importat domestic source Bureau of Mines, Office of fuel. 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